Article Guidelines

Authors must follow these guidelines when preparing to submit their contributions to AOS. We ask authors to also refer to our Editorial and Publishing Policies to familiarize themselves with our publishing policies, permissions, and open peer review model before submitting the manuscript.


Articles must be written in standard English for an international audience. Articles published in AOS are read by researchers from diverse backgrounds. Therefore, authors should write the manuscript in plain english and avoid using technical jargon. Where unavoidable, authors should clearly explain technical terms when they first appear in the article.

We do not edit manuscripts submitted for publication. Therefore, authors should make sure the language in the article is suitable for publication. Manuscripts that do not meet language requirement will not be accepted for publication (unless necessary improvements are made in the revision, where applicable).

We ask authors whose first language is not English, and authors who are non-English speakers to avail commercial language editing and translation services. We have partnered with Editage to provide 5% discount to our authors towards manuscript editing, translation and other author services.Click here to submit your manuscript to Editage.


AOS publishes various articles across all the disciplines. A brief description of each article type and their structure has been provided below. Although, a standard structure of each article type is listed below, we do allow some flexibility both in the article structure and formatting.

A. Research Articles

Research Articles represent original research findings across all the disciplines. We also welcome articles that cover null findings and scientifically justified replications that contribute to a cumulative knowledge base. Research Articles are not restricted in terms of the length of the article, number of display items (figures, tables and video files) and references.

  1. Article Title
  2. Authors names
  3. Author Information
    1. Author Affiliations
    2. Corresponding Authors
  4. Abstract
  5. Keywords
  6. Abbreviations (optional)
  7. Main Body (sections in the main body are flexible). Following are recommended sections that are appropriate for most of the Research Articles:
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and Methods
    3. Results
    4. Discussion
    5. Conclusions
  8. Supplementary Material (if available)
  9. Material and Data Availability (if applicable)
  10. Acknowledgements (optional)
  11. Author Contributions (Not applicable for single author articles)
  12. Statement of Informed Consent (if applicable)
  13. Competing Interests
  14. Grant Information
  15. References
  16. Figures, Tables and Legends

B. Short Reports

Short Reports present original research findings from smaller number of experiments that will be of interest to a broader audience. The main body sections of the Short Articles should be clear and concise. Short Reports should have no more than 4 display items (figures, tables or video clips). Abstract of Short Reports should be no more than 200 words.

  1. Article Title
  2. Authors names
  3. Author Information
    1. Author Affiliations
    2. Corresponding Authors
  4. Abstract
  5. Keywords
  6. Abbreviations (optional)
  7. Main Body (sections in the main body are flexible). Following are recommended sections that are appropriate for most of the Short Reports:
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and Methods
    3. Results
    4. Discussion
    5. Conclusions
  8. Supplementary Material (if available)
  9. Material and Data Availability (if applicable)
  10. Acknowledgements (optional)
  11. Author Contributions (Not applicable for single author articles)
  12. Statement of Informed Consent (if applicable)
  13. Competing Interests
  14. Grant Information
  15. References
  16. Figures, Tables and Legends

C. Review Articles

Review Articles should be based on recently published literature and should provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advancements in the field. New unpublished findings and data should not be included in the Review Articles. Authors should include only the original research in the references section and avoid citing other review articles.

  1. Article Title
  2. Authors names
  3. Author Information
    1. Author Affiliations
    2. Corresponding Authors
  4. Abstract
  5. Keywords
  6. Abbreviations (optional)
  7. Table of Contents (optional)
  8. Main Body (sections in the main body are flexible). Following are recommended sections that are appropriate for most of the Review Articles:
    1. Introduction
    2. Literature Analysis/Discussion
    3. Conclusions
  9. Acknowledgements (optional)
  10. Competing Interests
  11. Grant Information
  12. References
  13. Figures, Tables and Legends

D. Case Reports

We welcome original case reports from clinical medicine and other fields. Case reports can be based on single subject, group or community studies and should represent an in-depth investigation of the topic under consideration.

  1. Article Title
  2. Authors names
  3. Author Information
    1. Author Affiliations
    2. Corresponding Authors
  4. Abstract
  5. Keywords
  6. Abbreviations (optional)
  7. Main Body (sections in the main body are flexible)
  8. Supplementary Material (if available)
  9. Acknowledgements (optional)
  10. Author Contributions (Not applicable for single author articles)
  11. Statement of Informed Consent (if applicable)
  12. Competing Interests
  13. Grant Information
  14. References
  15. Figures, Tables and Legends

E. Method Articles

Method Articles report new and improved techniques and tools in the experimental research. Methods to be published should have been well standardized and should be easily reproducible. The article should provide adequate information about the principles, underlying protocols and the materials involved in the process.

  1. Article Title
  2. Authors names
  3. Author Information
    1. Author Affiliations
    2. Corresponding Authors
  4. Abstract
  5. Keywords
  6. Abbreviations (optional)
  7. Main Body (sections in the main body are flexible). Following are recommended sections that are appropriate for most of the Method Articles:
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and Methods
    3. Results
    4. Discussion
  8. Supplementary Material (if available)
  9. Material and Data Availability (if applicable)
  10. Acknowledgements (optional)
  11. Author Contributions (Not applicable for single author articles)
  12. Statement of Informed Consent (if applicable)
  13. Competing Interests
  14. Grant Information
  15. References
  16. Figures, Tables and Legends (if applicable)

F. Analytics Articles

Analytics Articles describe novel software tools and approaches towards research data analysis. Topics may include, but are not limited to, algorithms, data analysis pipelines, automated data analysis tools, big data and high-dimensional data analysis, cloud-based analytics, machine learning, and predictive analysis. All Analytics Articles reporting new analysis tools should make the software and the underlying source-data openly available for the readers (and referees) to be able to replicate the analysis. Additionally, authors are also required to deposit the source code and data in public repositories. Please read our Data Deposition Guidelines for more information.

  1. Article Title
  2. Authors names
  3. Author Information
    1. Author Affiliations
    2. Corresponding Authors
  4. Abstract
  5. Keywords
  6. Abbreviations (optional)
  7. Main Body (sections in the main body are flexible). Following are recommended sections that are appropriate for most of the Analytics Articles:
    1. Introduction
    2. Methods and Implementation Technologies
    3. Analysis
    4. Discussion
    5. Conclusions
  8. Supplementary Material (if available)
  9. Software and Data Availability
  10. Acknowledgements (optional)
  11. Author Contributions (Not applicable for single author articles)
  12. Statement of Informed Consent (if applicable)
  13. Competing Interests
  14. Grant Information
  15. References
  16. Figures, Tables and Legends (if applicable)

G. Material Validation Reports

Material Validation Reports present performance validation results for materials used in experimental research. Both commercial and previously published noncommercial research materials are considered. A broad range of materials could be reported including, but not limited to, chemical reagents, biochemical assay kits, biological reagents such as antibodies, apparatus and instrumentation used for research applications, and performance of the software tools used for research data acquisition and analysis. Authors should follow exact specifications provided by the manufacturers (or by the researchers who have previously published the material) in their validation attempts. Authors should provide adequate information for the readers to be able to reproduce such validation experiments.

  1. Article Title
  2. Authors names
  3. Author Information
    1. Author Affiliations
    2. Corresponding Authors
  4. Abstract
  5. Keywords
  6. Abbreviations (optional)
  7. Main Body (sections in the main body are flexible). Following are recommended sections that are appropriate for most of the Material Validation Reports:
    1. Introduction
    2. Methods and Implementation Technologies
    3. Results
    4. Discussion
    5. Conclusions
  8. Supplementary Material (if available)
  9. Material and Data Availability (if applicable)
  10. Acknowledgements (optional)
  11. Author Contributions (Not applicable for single author articles)
  12. Statement of Informed Consent (if applicable)
  13. Competing Interests
  14. Grant Information
  15. References
  16. Figures, Tables and Legends (if applicable)

H. Correspondence

Correspondence articles do not represent original research findings but are rather scholarly discussions based on previously published articles in AOS or in other journals. Correspondence articles should be less than 500 words with no more than 2 display items (Figures and Tables) and 10 references.

  1. Article Title
  2. Authors names
  3. Author Information
    1. Author Affiliations
    2. Corresponding Authors
  4. Abstract
  5. Keywords
  6. Abbreviations (optional)
  7. Main Body (sections in the main body are flexible)
  8. Acknowledgements (optional)
  9. Author Contributions (Not applicable for single author articles)
  10. Competing Interests
  11. Grant Information
  12. References
  13. Figures, Tables and Legends (if applicable)

To make it easy for our authors, article formatting is done by our technical editors. Authors can format their manuscript as they like, as long as the structure is well organized, written in good english, maintained consistency and clarity throughout, and below mentioned specific guidelines are met

A. Article Title

Article title should be less than 20 words and must reflect main findings in the article. Authors should avoid using non-standard abbreviations in the title.

B. Abstract

Abstract should provide a brief summary of the article, covering Introduction, Motivation/Problem Statement, Methods, Results and Conclusions. For Short Reports, Abstract must be less than 200 words. For all other article types, Abstract can be up to 300 words. References should not be included in the Abstract.

C. Keywords

Keywords allow an article to be picked up in relevant online searches, thereby, increasing the online visibility of an article. We also use keywords on our website to show related content to the readers. Authors should include up to 10 keywords that are most relevant to the article content.

D. Main Body

As a guideline, we have listed recommended sections that are appropriate for the main body of each article type (refer to “Article Structure” section of these guidelines). However, there are no explicit requirements for the article structure in the main body. Authors can organize the text and sections of the main body to make it more appropriate for their article type.

E. Supplementary Material

Supplementary material includes content that is not required by the readers to understand the content, but provides further information in support of claims made in the article. Supplementary material can be submitted either as a single PDF file or can be submitted as individual files (figures, tables, videos, etc.). When submitted as one single PDF file, authors should include article title and author names on the first page. Supplementary material will be published as-is without any further formatting, copyediting, typesetting and proofreading. Therefore, authors should make sure they format and describe the supplementary material that can be easily followed by the readers and referees.

Titles and description of all supplementary files should be included in the “Supplementary Materials” section of the article. Methods used to generate supplementary data should be described in the “Materials and Methods” section of the main article. Authors should refer to the supplementary data in the main article, where appropriate.

F. Material and Data Availability

We are committed to promoting reproducibility in research. Therefore, for the readers to be able to reproduce a study, we ask authors to provide sufficient information about the materials and methods used to generate the data. Manufacturer names, location and catalogue numbers must be included for all the commercial material used in the study. Authors should also disclose information about any noncommercial resources obtained from other research groups. Research equipment, instrumentation and software used for acquisition or analysis of the data should be well described, including but not limited to, manufacturer name, model number, instrument specific configurations and settings (if any), software version and settings used for the acquisition or analysis. Authors from biomedical research background can include Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs) to cite key resources used in the study. (visit Research Identification Iniatiative for more information).

We also aim to make source-data from research studies (published in AOS) openly available to the community. Where applicable, authors should upload source-data (combine all data into a single Zip file) to AOS data repository during the manuscript submission step. For data types that can be submitted to public data repositories, authors should submit such data to relevant public repositories and provide accession details in this section. Please read our data policies for more information

G. Acknowledgements

Authors are required to acknowledge any individual or entity who contributed towards study design, execution, manuscript writing, editing or proofreading. Grant funding - which is supposed to be covered under “Grant Information” section of the article - should not be included in the acknowledgements section.

H. Author Contributions

In this section, authors should provide information regarding individual contributions made by each author. Following are the details we recommend to be included in this statement, though the level of detail varies with the discipline and article type:

  • Study conception
  • Experiment design
  • Data acquisition
  • Data analysis and interpretation
  • Drafting the manuscript
  • Critical revision of the manuscript

Author contributions section should be brief and only the author initials should be used followed by a short description of their contribution. Below is an example:

“JPM conceived the study and designed the experiments, LS carried out the data acquisition, MFK analyzed the data and prepared figures, JPM and RD wrote the manuscript. All authors reviewed the manuscript.”

We adhere to the Belmont Report, the Nuremberg Code, WMA Declaration of Helsinki, and principles of other major international committees for ethics in research involving human subjects. Authors are required to obtain a written informed consent and other required permissions (such as parents/guardian permission) from all the participants involved in such studies, to be published. Authors should be able to provide evidence when requested by the AOS team. In this section, authors should include the following statement to indicate they meet this requirement:

“Author(s) hereby declare that written informed consent, permissions and releases were obtained from concerned persons (patients/participants/parents/guardians) for publication of patients/participants’ personal information, case details and/or their images. Any questions or concerns should be directed to the corresponding author of this article.”

J. Competing Interests

In this section, authors should disclose any potential and/or actual financial and non-financial competing interests. Financial interests include, but are not limited to, consulting fees, employment, research contracts, royalties, honoraria, patents (pending or received) and stock ownership. Non-financial interests include personal, professional, religious, political and ideological interests.

Disclosing competing interests will not affect the manuscript acceptance decisions for publication, but provides transparency for our readers to draw their own conclusions of any potential bias. If the authors do not have any competing interests to disclose, then they should write “No competing interests to disclose” in this section.

K. Grant Information

All sources of financial support relevant to the research being published should be disclosed in this section. The name(s) of the funding agencies, grant numbers (if applicable), and grantees’ information should all be included. Corresponding author(s) is responsible to check with all the co-authors to ensure grant information section is complete and accurate. Manuscript resulting from research that was not funded by any grant funder or institution should include the text: “No grants were used to support this research”.

L. References

AOS is a multi-disciplinary platform and we recognize that referencing style varies based on author’s discipline. Authors can format the references in standard referencing style appropriate for their discipline. However, authors should maintain style consistency throughout the references section in a given article.

Authors should also include Crossref DOI (Digital Object Identifier) link for all the references, where available. DOIs are usually listed on the title page of a given print publication, or close to the title section within online publication (html page). Please note that references will not be copy edited and authors are responsible for accuracy and completeness of the references.

Irrespective of the referencing style, authors should follow below given requirements for the references:

  1. Allowed number of references:
    • Short articles: Less than 30 references.
    • Correspondence Articles: Less than 10 references
    • Application Notes: Less than 10 references
    • For all other article types: No limit
  2. References should be numbered sequentially in the order of their appearance in the article.
  3. Each reference number should point to only a single reference item.
  4. Reference types that can be listed in the References section, include, published papers, book chapters, conference abstracts, patents, datasets, accepted papers that are in press, and articles uploaded to preprint servers.
  5. Reference types that should go in the text but not in References section, include, website URLs, unpublished conference abstracts, manuscripts submitted but pending acceptance, and personal communications. Authors should refer to unpublished articles and personal communications as “unpublished” and “personal communications”, respectively, followed by names of the researchers involved. Authors are required to have permissions from all the researchers involved in unpublished research and personal communication.

M. Figures, Tables and Legends

Each main figure should be submitted as a separate file during online manuscript submission step (refer to the section “Formats and Naming the Files” below for more information). Figure legends, tables and table legends should be provided immediately after the References section in the manuscript. Figures should be cited in the text as “Figure 1”, “Figure 2”, and the tables should be cited in the text as “Table 1”, “Table 2”. All figure and table legends should include a title (less than 20 words) and a concise description of key points. Authors should avoid using excessive methodological details in the legends. Any acronyms and symbols used in the figures and tables should be clearly explained in the legends.

Preparation of Figures and Tables

Figures should be prepared to fit A4-page width. Compressed high resolution images should be submitted either in “Tiff” or “jpg” format. All line art (schematics, graphs and charts) should be at least 1500 dpi and images should be at least 300 dpi. Tables should be in editable format within main manuscript (MS-Word) but can also be submitted as separate MS-Excel sheet. Tables submitted as images are not acceptable.

File Formats and Naming the Files

Manuscript should be submitted as MS-Word Document (.docx only). File should be named as “Manuscript”. Main figure files should be submitted either in “Tiff” or “jpg” format, and named as “Figure 1”, “Figure 2”. Supplementary material should be submitted either as a single PDF file (named “Supplementary Material”), or as separate figure files in “Tiff” or “jpg” format (named “Figure S1”, “Figure S2”). Main Tables submitted as separate MS-word or MS-Excel sheets should be named as “Table 1”, “Table 2”. Supplementary tables submitted as separate MS-word or MS-Excel sheets should be named as “Table S1”, “Table S2”. Source data file should be submitted as a Zip file named “Source_Data”. In case of large datasets, multiple zip files can be uploaded as “Source Data 1”, “Source Data 2”.

Equations

Authors should include all equations and mathematical expressions (if any) in the article text. In addition, a separate PDF document including all the equations (as they should appear in the final article) should be submitted online during manuscript submission step.

Preparing Revised Article

Same article guidelines apply to also the revised article. However, authors should include an additional section titled “Amendments from Previous Version” before the Abstract section in the manuscript. In this amendments section, authors should include a summary of changes made to the previous version and point readers to the appropriate sections for full information.